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Library | Low-frequency therapeutics
Galvanization is a method of direct continuous current medical use: low voltage current (up to 80V) and small amperage (up to 50mA). DC power supply was invented in 1800 by Italian physician A. Volta, and it was named galvanic after A. Galvani. This current medical use method was named galvanization.
Current electricity is a free electricity directed movement in electrical conductor. There are two kinds of conductors: metals — first class conductor and electrolytic conductors — second class conductor. Negatively charged electrons advance under electric potential action in metals. In this case there are no mass transfer and chemical behavior in electrolytic conductors and solutions, dissociating on charged particles — ions, it means that current electricity is an oppositely charged ions movement in the opposite direction in the second class conductor. Human body tissues refer to the second class conductor, that is why passage of an electric current through them is connected with positively charged particles (cations) movement to the negative pole — cathode, а negatively charged particles (anions) — to the positive pole — anode.
Galvanic current arises in biological tissue. Being close to one or another pole, ions reconstruct their outer shell and turn into atoms, which have a high chemical activity. This process is called therapeutic electrolysis. When interact with water, sodium and chloride atoms result in electrolysis products: NaCl + Н20 — NaOH + HCl, acid under anode and alkaline under cathode. When acid and alcaline densification under electrodes subjacent tissues corrosive burn can appear. To prevent it the cappings, wetted by water, are placed under electrodes.
Electrical properties of different tissues are different. Epidermis, conjunctive tissues, ligamentums, chordas put up a high electrical resistance. These tissues can be related to dielectrics. Body liquid media have low-resistance and good electric conductivity. The following tissues have small direct-current resistance: cerebrospinal fluid, blood, blood plasma, extracellular fluids. Current passes along nerve filaments very well. Key factor, which determines tissue resistance, is a thickness of horny layer (0.07 — 0.12 mm): the smaller the thickness, the easier the current passes. Skin resistance varies depending on skin humidity. Nonhorned epidermis contains up to 70% of water, horned epidermis — only 10%. Resistance considerably reduces at skin humidifying. At the average tissue resistance of human body is 1000 — 5000Ohm. Bearing down this resistance, current passes through entrances of perspiratory and oil glands, hair follicle and also intercellular space of epidermis and derma from one electrode to another through tissues with the minimum resistance, widely branching and shifting. blood vascular distention and their inflation increase under action of current results in resistance decrease and current intensity increase.
When direct current is in the body some physico-chemical processes happen: electrolysis, polarization, diffusion and osmosis. Being specific component of current action, electrolysis has an effect on the correlation of different ions in tissues, hence changing cells and tissues functional status. Ions electrophoretic mobility is determined by their valence. More labile monovalent potassium and sodium ions accumulate generally at cathode and cause activation. Calcium and magnesium densification at anode causes tissues intravital processes intensity decrease. Functional status of tissues also determines hydrogen and hydroxyl ions reproportion, caused by direct current. Hydrogen ions densification at cathode causes affectability increase, hydroxyl ions densification at anode causes its decrease.
Polarization is provided by accumulation of equal signs ions on plasmolemma, basement membranes and fascias different surfaces, interstitial polarization appears, which causes appearance of opposite direction current in relation to principal current. It creates additional resistance to active current, but at the same time these zones are places of the most active current action (after epidermis).
Together with electrolytes there are always a lot of dielectrics in the form of ionizing molecules in tissue media. These molecules are molecules of amino acids, polypeptides, proteins. In these neutral molecule equal-in-magnitudes unsimilar charges are in space relationship, they form so-called dipole, which doesn’t have determined alignment. Under electric field effect the dipoles get determined alignment, it means that they polarize.
Simultaneously with ions movement electric current modifies membrane permeability of erethic tissues and increases passive transport of large protein molecules (ampholytes) и other matters, it determines electrodiffusion. Furthermore, under electric field action the differently directed movement (over cells) of free and entrapped water molecules in membranous layer appears in tissue. Therefore water content under cathode increases, water thesaurismosis and maceration take place, and tissues firm under anode, it is typical for electroosmosis. All abovementioned characterizes physicochemical processes, typical for galvanization. Alongside with physico-chemical processes a reflectory component has a great significance in galvanic current mechanism. Because of relatively small amount of perspiratory and oil glands and skin barrier high resistance, the major part of voltage, linked up with electrodes, falls at skin, where electric energy is cancelled out. In this case cutaneous receptors irritation takes place. Galvanic current irritation of end capsules leads to dorsal root of spinal nerve momentum transfer and comes up vegetal centers, which are put in spinal nerve lateral columns. Then irritation is passed to skin vessels through vasomotor nerves, springing from these centers, it causes skin capillaries reaction and hyperemia appears. Skin receptors high-level irritation is accompanied with sensory input creation, which comes up vegetative system formations, spinal bulb, limbic system reticular formation, basal ganglia and also cerebral cortex.
Subcortex functional status changing leads to centrifugal impulsation appearance, which is accompanied with different organs and systems dynamic changes — so-called skin visceral reflex. Skin visceral reflex evidence is a vascular response in skin, which develops under electrodes. Short-term soft galvanic current effect increases receptors sensitivity and long-term galvanization reduces pselaphesia and algesthesia. Galvanic current skin sensibility in different regions of body is different, appearingly it is connected with different skin resistance and differently developed neural network.
Next component in galvanic current mechanism is a humoral factor. Galvanic current has an effect on biologically active substances appearance - acetylcholine, histamine, heparin, bradykinin, kininogenase, prostaglandins, endorphines, etc.
At negative pole zone (cathode) acetylcholine formation in nerve fibre increases and at positive pole zone (anode) it decreases. By this the catelectrotonic activation effect is explained, when there is an activation of nerve fibre (catelectrotonus) in cathode zone, and there is its suppression (anelectrotonus) in anode zone. There are experimental data, giving evidence of cholinesterase activity changing under galvanic current action: ferment strength decreases at cathode and increases at anode.
Abovementioned changes cause clear subjective sensations. Already at small current strength slight prickly sensation appears under electrodes, at current strength increase it becomes a heat. With further current strength increase pain appears. Tissues ionic conjuncture, acid-alkali balance, colloidal dispersion changing, and also biologically active substances appearance have a excitatory influence on exteroreceptors and interoceptors, initiating sensory input flow to spinal nerve metameres and cerebrospinal axis. As a result of this impulsation in vegetal centers, including segmental level, efferent impulse formation takes place, activating different organs and systems to prevent or reduce changes, caused by current. Depending on these changes evidence and mainly on volume of tissue, where they take place, reactions can have local, regional or general nature. These reactions appear not only in sensations, but also in blood circulation increase.
At the same time hyperemia progresses under electrodes, especially under cathode, being determined by vasodilation and vessels blood circulation acceleration. Blood and lymph flow activation also takes place in more deep tissues of interelectrode space: vascular wall penetrance increase, reserve capillary tubes open. Blood circulation activation provides tissues trophism improvement, removal of metabolism products from teratoid focus, infiltration eradication at inflammatory processes, cicatrix ramollissement and resorption, lesional tissues revivification, abnormal functions normalization. Besides local blood flow regulation system activation, increase of biologically active substances (bradykinin, kininogenase, prostaglandin) content and vasoactive mediators (acetylcholine, histamine), causing activation of vessels enervation endothelial factors (nitric oxide, endothelins) takes place. Eventually dermal vessels ectasis takes place, it causes dermahemia. Local irritant effect of electrolysis products also plays a key role in hyperemia genesis. They change dermal affects functionality and cause neural pathways affectability decrement.
Capillaries ectasia and their walls penetrability increase (because of local neuroregulatory processes) take place not only in electrode placing point, but also in deep tissues, through which direct electric current passes. Together with blood and lymph flow increase, resorption tissues ability increase, muscle tone decrease, secretory skin function increase and hydrops in inflammatory tissue or in injury area decrease appear.
Direct current intensifies fusion of macroergs, stimulates metabolic-trophical processes. It causes macrophages and polymorphnuclear leukocytes phagocytic activity increase, accelerates regenerative process of peripheral nerves, osseous and conjunctive tissues, indolent maim and trophic ulcers epithelialization. Furthemore, direct current increases secretory function of salivary glands, gaster and intestinal tract.
Galvanization has a stimulating effect on regulating function of nervous and endocrine systems, activates sympathoadrenal and cholinergic systems functions, favors digestive apparatus secretory and motor functions normalization, stimulates body trophic and energetic processes. Galvanization increases body responsiveness and its resilience, including protective function of skin. At Vermel's galvanization circulatory dynamics improves, cardiac beat rate decreases, protein and carbohydrate metabolism increase. So, galvanization is an active biological stimulator and can be used for different pathosis treatment and for micromegaly prevention.
Galvanization unit is a dc power supply, which is used in treatment and prophylaxis.
- idiopathic hypertensia
- essential arterial hypotensia
- digestive apparatus diseases, proceeding with abnormality of motor and secretory functions (chronic gastritis, cholecystitis, colitis, biliary dyskinesia)
- peripheral nervous system and musculoskeletal system traumas and diseases
Galvanization indications in cosmetology
- all kinds of dyssebacia
- dry, fading skin
- acne scars
- all kinds of alopecia
- essential febrilily and acute infectious diseases
- cardiovascular diseases and other serious somatic diseases decompensation
- malignant neoplasms
- implanted cardiostimulator presence
- factor idiosyncrasy
- systemic blood disease
- haemorrhages and haemorrhage inclination
- skin sensitivity dyscrasia
- solution of skin integument continuity.
Reference to “Non-drug Medicine”, №1/2005
Medical electrophoresis (ionophoresis, iontophoresis) is a method of associated action on human body of direct current and medicine, inserting with its help. Electric current, as an active biological stimulant, is very important in medical electrophoresis. 90—92% of medicine is inserted as a consequence of electrogenic motion, 1—3% is inserted using electroosmosis and 5—8% — as a result of diffusion. Medicines pharmacokinetics at electrophoresis has some differences in comparison with their other methods. In this case medicine searches to the body through the skin, less frequently — through mucous coats or vulnerary surface. The points of medicine entry at its searching through skin are the perspiratory and oil glands aqueducts and also interepithelial hiatus.
There is a medicines deposition in skin for period of 1 – 2 days during medicines electrophoresis. Medicine enters deep tissues from skin depot using osmosis, diffusion and electrogenic motion slowly and gradually, spreading with blood current throughout the body. Then medicine divides in different organs, in compliance with circulatory dynamics and pharmacotropic activity laws. However, because of electric field effect, the largest medicine concentration is determined in those tissues, which are in the interelectrode space. Medicine excretion from body is carried out by kidneys in the majority of cases. Medical electrophoresis, in contrast to other pharmacotherapy methods, has its own features. At electrophoresis minor medicine is inserted (it is estimated at milligrams or their percentage). However, in this case medicine is also active enough for good curative effect achievement.
Medicine pharmacological activity increase is explained by current effect, which improves the most important organs and body systems functioning and creates a favourable ground for medicine action; it is also explained by the inserting of the medicinal compounds most active part, which has an electric charge (ion, mole ion) - this charge allows them to come into chemical and electric interaction with body tissues. Medicines deposition in skin at electrophoresis favors their long-stay in body, slow renal excretion and durable action. Usually adverse reactions, usual for medicines, when they are inserted by other methods, are absent, because only small part of them enter the body. Moreover, ballast part of medicine and eluent, which cause adverse reactions very often, don’t enter the body and stay on capping.
Medical electrophoresis method allows immediate oleate inserting to diseased area, if it is in surface tissues (skin, subdermal fat tissue, mucous coats). At the same time during electrophoresis medicines achieve deep tissues with circulating blood, concentrating in multitude in organs, which are situated in the interelectrode space. In parallel with specified advantages of this method there are some disadvantages. Not all medicines can be used for electrophoresis. Only limited quantity of pharmacopeial medicine (app. 200) from their great number has electrophoretic property. When treating some diseases, when it is necessary to get a large concentration of medicine in body, electrophoresis method is unpractical.
Most commonly medicines-electrolytes, ionizing in liquid, are inserted to body with the help of this method. Positive ions are inserted from positive pole (anode), negative ions are inserted from negative pole (cathode). Purified water is an ideal solvent for these matters. The ability of some compound organic matter electrophoresis is proved. These medicines neutral molecules adsorb solvent ions (Н+ or ОН) on their surface in special, so-called buffered solutions, taking a positive electric charge in acidic medium and a negative electric charge in alkaline medium. Some matters (amino acid, albumins) are polyampholytes and may be inserted from both poles. However, they enter the body in large quantities from anode. Acetate (acid) buffered solution composition is: sodium acetate (or sodium citrate) 11,4 g, glacial acetic acid— 0.91 ml, purified water — 1000 ml. Acetate buffered solution is used generally for lidasa insertion. Borate buffer with рН 8.0—9.0 (alkaline medium) is used for trypsin and chymotrypsin electrophoresis, it is inserted from negative pole. Its composition is: boric acid 6.2 g., potassium chloride 7.4 g., sodium hydroxide (or potassum hydroxide) 3 g., purified water 500 ml. 10 mg of chymotrypsin is dissolved in 15—20 ml of borate buffer. When medicine dissolubility is poor in water, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or ethyl alcohol is used as a solvent. Medicine and solvent, because of osmosis and electroosmosis, enter the body through skin. These effects are insignificant for water, but increase when using spirit and DSMO very much, it should be taken into account in clinical practice. Instead of buffered liquids a purified water, acidated 0.1 N by hydrochloric acid solution to рН 5.2 or alcalined 0.1 N by strong caustic solution to рН 8.0 may be used. Gelatin, in which one or another biocatalyzer dissolves, is used as a coupling medium at labile electrophoresis on face. 0.5—5.0% range of medicines solutions concentration is used generally. Use of higher concentration is unpractical. Medicine capacity per 100 sq. cm. of capping surface is approx. 10—15 ml of solution. Potent agents are inserted from solutions with 1:1000 concentration or spread on capping in quantity, equal to maximum single dose (epinephrine, atropine, platyphyllin, etc.). Inserted with the help of electrophoresis medicines are given in physiotherapy guidelines.
After electrophoresis procedure it is necessary to wash cappings carefully by flowing water (8—10 l for one capping) to wash medicines out from them and sterilize by boiling. It is necessary to wash and boil cappings, wetted by different medicines, separately, to prevent their soiling with parasitical ions. Medical electrophoresis procedure is dosed by current intensity, which is designated in compliance with physiological density, as during galvanization (approx. from 0.01 to 0.1—0.2 mA/ sq. cm. of hydrophilic capping surface). The procedure duration is from 10 to 20—30 min. Course of treatment consists of 10—20 procedures, daily of every other day. Before electrophoresis procedure infrared irradiation by “Spectrum – LZ” unit or thermal procedure by “Sollux” lamp, and also impulse current muscle toning treatment may be prescribed for electrical resistance decrease and medicine insertion improvement. Medical electrophoresis indications and methods are similar to indications and methods of galvanization.
Medical electrophoresis contraindication: general for physical factors assignment: direct current idiosyncrasy, oleate intolerance.
Advantages of medical electrophoresis method: skin depot creation, where medicines are found out for 1 - 3 days and more; immediate effect on nidus; great decrease of side effect and allergic response; unpainful medicine insertion.
Disadvantages of medical electrophoresis method: not all medicines can be used for electrophoresis method insertion, because their polarity and electrophoretic properties are unknown; there is no possibility to create a large medicine concentration; there is no possibility to determine a medicine concentration in body.
“Physiotherapy Guideline”, 2005
Amplipulse therapy is an action on patient's body areas of changing sinusoidal current with frequency 5000Hz, modulated low frequencies in range of 10-150Hz. Their amplitude modulation depth varies from 0 to 100% and more. The series of current, separated from each other by intervals with zero amplitude, impulses are formed in the result of modulation.
Sinusoidal modulated current causes currents in tissues, and then they activate nerve and muscle fibers. Neurostimulation effect of sinusoidal modulated current parametrically depends on frequency and depth of its modulation. It is expressed stronger, than in direct current, but it relinquishes DDT and fluctuating current effect. Because of large intensity of electromagnetic field directed in tissues the skin, muscles and internals receptors, and also motofacient and vegetal nerve fibers are involved in activation process. Analytical effect of sinusoidal modulated currents is realized in the same way as DDT. At the same time they cause more effective peripheral conductors block of algesthesia, up to parabiosis. What is more, expressed dominance of rhythmical stimulation is formed in central nervous system, it leads to fast algetic dominant decrement, which stimulates nutritional function of sympathetic nervous system and opioid peptide release in brain stem. Sinusoidal modulated currents activize ischemic tissues microvasculature, reduce venous hyperemia and perineural hydrops. Combination of these mechanisms determines greater analgetic effect in 90% of cases, especially in cases of vegetal fibres overexcitation (sympathalgia).
“Physiotherapy Guideline”, 2005
Diadynamic therapy is a method of action on patient’s body with low-frequency unidirectional half-sine faradic current with exponential trailing edge of 50 and 100 Hz frequency in different combinations.
Diadynamic currents activate myelinated nervous introducers of somatosensory system (skin and muscle afferents). Formed upward afferent currents pervade in the direction of brain stem through diastaltic nerve fibre and form a dominant excitation focus in cortex.
Upon immediate effect to casualty body areas these currents cause a great number of skeletal muscles and vessels unstriated muscles myofibrils beatings. Their contractile properties change leads to vascular distention of microvasculature, it determines reflectory increase of blood flow and also increases the number of active anastomosis and collaterals and activate metabolic process in tissues. Reflectory character of vascular tone regulation determines blood flow increase in body areas, innervating from one spinal medulla segment, including the opposite side.
The base of diadynamic currents is two half-sine faradic currents of 50 or 100 Гц Hz frequency, which are formed as a result of single- and double-wave detection of mains-operated simple harmonic current. Each current can have an effect on human body continuously, with delays or with their continuous alternation in periods of different length. Today the following kinds of diadynamic currents are used in medical practice:
Single-wave continuous half-sine current of 50 Hz frequency. It has a frank irritant and miostimulating action till tetanic muscle contraction. It causes large unpleasant vibration;
Double-wave continuous half-sine current of 100 Hz frequency. It has a frank analgetic and vasoactive action, causes tetanilla, small diffuse vibration;
Sin gle-wave rhythmic current, which pulses alternate with the delays of equal duration (1.5 s). It has the most frank miostimulating action during the current pulses, which harmonizes with the period of full relaxation of muscles during the delay;
Current, which is modulated by short period, is a successive coupling of single-wave and double-wave currents of equal pulses (1.5 s). The alternation reduces адаптацию to them greatly. Firstly this current has a neuromiostimulating effect, and after 1-2 min causes analgesia. It causes an esthesia of alternation of large and soft tender vibration.
“COUNTERSHOCK”. Guidance manual.
Usage success and permanent development of countershock are connected with the fact that this physical factor causes activated nerve and muscular tissues effector reaction.
In countershock practice physician deals with area of influence and influence parameters selection. Therefore theoretical model should include understanding of physiological effect of impulse current various parameters.
Electric stimulus parameters are pulse shape, including amplitude, duration, front slope, and impulse tracking temporal characteristics. Variations of electric stimulus parameters are used for selective have an effect on cells of different activation and lability.
Unidirectional and bidirectional pulses of width 1-1000 mc and amplitude up to 100 mV are used in countershock practice. According to Pfluger's law, cathodic impulse causing cell membrane depolarization is activative.
Normal and pathological muscle and nerve cells have different affectivity, i. e. current impulse amplitude and time, necessary for achievement of action potential in these cells, differ essentially. Cells affectivity is described by Dubois-Reymond law and characterized by two values - current strength and its action time, necessary for effector reaction achievement.
Impulse amplitude increase in first order leads to the most activated cells effector output achievement, then to less activated cells implication and their total amount enlargement at the expense of enlarging the region of threshold voltage expansion in tissues. Pulse stretching leads to slow reacting cells (of mutilated skeletal muscles, nerve vegetal fibres, unstriated muscles) implication.
Pulse shape has a great importance also for effectiveness of through-skin-operation. Bidirectional pulses with steep leading edge of short duration have the smallest cancellation in skin integument, it increases current penetration depth. Bidirectional pulse doesn’t cause skin irritation because of electrolysis processes compensation.
During electric stimulation pulsed frequency is varied from single pulse to several hundred pulses per second. This parameter is important at selection of action on nerve and muscular tissue of different lability (after N. E. Vvedenskiy). Mechanism, basing lability, is following: after firing cell or nerve conductor passes phases of absolute affectivity, relative nonaffectivity, elation and subnormal affectivity – Marey's refractoriness law.
So, activated tissues react only on stimulation frequencies, which don’t exceed their lability. For example, during voluntary movements impulsation frequency of nerve motor fiber doesn’t exceed 50 pulses per second, and in sensitive fibres it can achieve 1000 and more pulses per second. At different abnormal changes nerve fibre lability may go down to 1-5 pulses per second. Salutary skeletal muscle lability (from 200 to 500 pulses per second) goes down to 2-5 pulses per second at abnormal change. Usage of frequency, which exceeds nerve conductor lability, fully blocks passage, and, as a consequence, appropriate effectors responses appear - myospasm laxation, analgesia, neurohumoral state change.
This effect appears mainly in nerve conductors bifurcation points, where neurocytes impulsive streams are combined. Frequencies selection allows to effect electively on tissues with different lability - unstriated muscle fibres, skeletal muscle, myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibres of different caliber.
Effector reactions at electrical stimulation are evident as single anastalsis in reply to single impulse, serrated tetanus in reply to stimulation with frequency 10-20 pulses per second (when muscles have time to relax partially) and full tetanus (anastalsis without laxation). These reactions belong to activation optimum area. Relaxation of muscles with further frequency increase – activation pessimum appears at the expense of inactivation of myoneural junction postsynaptic membrane ion channels.
Tetanus is a muscular irritability differential characteristic and explained by muscle cell membrane ability to sum up action potential, answering long response.
So, depending on electrical stimulation parameters it is possible to cause muscle-tonic and muscle-relaxing effects, excitatory or retardation states in nerve tissue, neurohumoral changes
Under the action of impulse current arterial and venous circulation (including blood microcirculation in tissue structures) increase is observed. Besides this, lymph flow activation takes place. Haemodynamic stimulation is carried out reflectory as a result of impulse current direct influence to sensitive and nerve vegetal fibres and also because of reflectory increase of activated muscle fibres blood supply. Depending on localization of exposure blood circulation activation can be achieved in all organs and tissues. Blood affluxion increase happens not only in tissues, situated between electrodes, but also in body areas, which get innervation from the same spinal medulla metamere, including symmetrical zone. Intensive blood circulation leads to trophic processes stimulation in tissues and also decreases or suspends dystrophic and retrograde processes in tissues and organs.
These impulse currents have analgetic action. It is necessary to put out not only cause of pain, but also pain itself during treatment. Electroanalgesia reduces acesodynes usage greatly, accelerates pathologic process regression. Rhythmical activation of nerve and muscle fibres exteroreceptors and also proprioceptors, rhythmical impulsation flow is destined from area of influence. This dominant rhythmical impulsation flow has an have an effect on nerve vegetal systemfunctional status, blocks algesic pulses passage through afferent pathways
Under the impulse action endorphins and enkephalins opioid peptides production and congestion is stimulated. They are inhibitory neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in nervous system structures, connected with nociceptive and antinociceptive impulses passage and pain formation (conduction and sensation of pain). Effect of anodynia after procedure, kept for several hours, is connected with neuropeptides. Antalgesic effect of electroimpulsive operations is realized also because of blood circulation improvement and ischemic tissues trophism, puffiness and venous hyperemia decrease, especially in perineural space.
Ease from pain or the relief of pain, as some specialists say, have a great importance for central nervous system functional status improvement. In this case long and erectile reaction on algesic impulses is cut out, circulus vicious between nidus and central nervous system tears.
After countershock course increase of aerobian and anaerobian energetical processes activity and functional state of organism improvement and higher performance efficiency are detected. Impulse current influences intensify metabolic process flow. At experimental atherosclerosis on the back of oxidation-reduction processes weakening oxydative enzyme activity increases under the action of impulse current. As some specialists say, there is an improvement of carbohydrate and lipidic metabolism. Lipidic metabolism improvement is expressed in content reduction of general lipids at the expense of all fractions, but mainly at the expense of free fatty acids and cholesterol increase. It leads to weakening of atherogenic lipoprotein fractions stream and increase of fractions, which have antiatherogenic properties. For obeses (I-IV degrees of adipositas) body mass reduction during impulsive therapy happened mainly at the expense of fatty component, cutaneous-subcutaneous fat layer thickness decrease in a greater or lesser degree in the area of electrodes applying, it causes more expressed local lipolysis.
Thus impulse current action in medical process consists of different organs and systems reflex responses to referred nerves (afferent and motor) activation, receptors, muscle fibres and, mainly, proprioceptors.
Blood circulation, tissues trophism, central nervous system functional status improvement, metabolic process activation, analgetic action, endocrine and mediator systems normalization, and also ability to cause muscle activity in conjunction with choice of forms, manipulation parameters (pulse length, spacing frequency, amperage, procedure duration), which allow to enforce some defined properties (effects), permit to have an effect on pathological organ or system at different dystrophic, phologistic, traumatic diseases in each specific case.
- phlogistic, traumatic, retrograde, dystrophic neurological diseases (polyneuritis, axis osteochondrosis neurologic syndrome, neurodynia, plexitis);
- medical diseases (chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma of low and medium level, chronical pneumonia, hypertensive disease of I and II stage, chronic gastritis with secretory inefficiency, peptic ulcer, biliary dyskinesia, colodyskinesia);
- orthopedic injuries and diseases (arthritis, arthrosis, spondylosis, muscles hypotrophy after prolonged immobilization, myositis, pseudorheumatism with minimum and medium degree of process activity);
- vascular system diseases (occlusive diseases of lower limbs vessels, varix dilatation, Raynaud's disease, chronic legs lymphostasis);
- female and male genital organs diseases (adnexitis, chronic salpingo-oothecitis, postprimary agenesia after alvus and adnexas inflammatory disease, chronic prostatitis, functional astysia);
- urological diseases (cystalgia, cystitis, urinary bladder atony );
- adiposis I - III degrees;
- musculation training at muscles volume disproportion and muscle strength increase necessity.
- systemic blood diseases;
- haemorrhages and haemorrhage inclination;
- cardiac decompensation, disturbed circulation higher than II deg.;
- nephrism and hypohepatia;
- active pulmonary tuberculosis and nephrotuberculosis;
- thrombophlebitis (in impact area);
- vesical calcification and calculous cholecystitis (during operation in the area of alvus and lumbus);
- terebrant infra-articular injuries;
- terebrant mattery inflammatory processes;
- acute skin disease in impact area;
- impulse current hyperresponsiveness;
- implanted cardiostimulator.